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Studies have shown an association with sexual activity without condom use among MSM in stable relationships and living in marital status. One limitation of this study is related to the inclusion criteria, as participants should have knowledge of their HIV status or state they negative for HIV. However, this was a cross-sectional study in which all measurements were performed in a single point in time and one could not be sure that all volunteers were indeed negative at study entry.
The questionnaire responses from people known to be positive for HIV could bias our final results. Therefore, we believe that participants were probably under high risk but were unaware of their serostatus. It is also worth noting that the form of selecting participants, through invitations to those MSM who had been to OSC or in other venues for other activities, may have had some selection bias.
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Our study faced difficulty in selecting MSM volunteers. The great majority was selected directly at testing study sites which probably resulted in the selection of high risk subjects. Traditionally, epidemiology has been concerned with the study of risk behavior at the individual level. But in that way, it does not consider the context of interactions in networks of groups of people with some common characteristics. The spread of sexually transmitted infections depends on interaction for acquiring an infection and is related to the choice of partner and sexual practices.
In conclusion, the study shows the MSM population had a higher risk of HIV infection compared to other population subgroups. This fact is related to practices and high risk sexual behaviors as well as specific sociodemographic characteristics that make MSM a vulnerable group for the disease. The study showed low consistent condom use in regular and casual sex. Moreover, it indicates the use of infection risk reduction strategies HIV such as seropositioning.
The use of risk reduction strategies among MSM based on knowledge of HIV status of their own and of their partner may be ineffective. BMC Public Health.
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Self-rated health by HIV-infected individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy in Brazil. Braz J Infect Dis. How AIDS changed every thing. World Health Organization; Estimation of HIV incidence in two Brazilian municipalities, Prevalence, estimated HIV-1 incidence and viral diversity among people seeking voluntary counseling and testing services in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
BMC Infect Dis. HIV prevalence among female sex workers, drug users and men who have sex with men in Brazil: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Rev Bras Epidemiol. Internet-based partner selection and risk for unprotected anal intercourse in sexual encounters among men who have sex with men: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Sex Transm Infect. Risk factors associated with HIV infection among male homosexuals and bisexuals followed in an open cohort study: Project Horizonte, Brazil An event-level analysis of the interpersonal factors associated with condomless anal sex among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men MSM with online-met partners.
Influence of personal network structure on an individual's risk for HIV infection. University of Maryland at Baltimore; Unprotected receptive anal intercourse among men who have sex with men in Brazil. AIDS Behav. Incentives and barriers to HIV testing in men who have sex with men in a metropolitan area in Brazil. In a minority of gay men, sexual risk practice indicates strategic positioning for perceived risk reduction rather than unbridled sex.
AIDS Care. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. Am J Epidemiol. Seroadaptation among men who have sex with men: emerging research themes. Sexual risk behaviour for transmission of HIV in men who have sex with men: recent findings and potential interventions.
HIV seroadaptation among individuals, within sexual dyads, and by sexual episodes, men who have sex with men, San Francisco, Prevalence of seroadaptive behaviours of men who have sex with men, San Francisco, Prevalence, correlates and trends in seroadaptive behaviours among men who have sex with men from serial cross-sectional surveillance in San Francisco, Different preventions methods lead to different choices?
Changes in seroadaptive practices from before to after diagnosis of recent HIV infection among men who have sex with men. HIV risk reduction behaviours in gay men: unprotected anal intercourse, risk reduction behaviours, and subsequent HIV infection in a cohort of homosexual men.
Vulnerabilidade de homens que fazem sexo com homens no contexto da AIDS. Cad Saude Publica. Sex Transm Dis. There were also no restrictions on the use of minor slave girls in the brothels. Many slaveowners also sent their slaves to the streets to make money by selling homemade sweets, small products or services, and as if it were the most natural thing of the world they also used the opportunity to decorate girls with a few colorful and gold ribbons.
If the stipulated minimum amount was not achieved, the usual punishments on the slaves were carried out. During the first half of the 19th century the slaves, who were destined for prostitution, were bought directly from the African traders. After the end of official slavery between Africa and America, the slave girl were delivered by the large farms in Minas Gerais and northeastern Brazil to the brothels and pimps.
Pimps, often poor " gypsies " or small criminals, came to great prosperity and lived "in the greatest lascivious behavior among their host of young, submissive black sex slaves. There were in the 19th century four types of prostitutes. First, the negroes and mulattoes, who had to be prostitutes by orders of their owner. Often, they had to deliver the entire income, some others were allowed to keep part of the money for incentive , and others had to bring a minimum each day, otherwise they were beaten or tortured.
The second category were poor free women, often ex-slaves or their daughters, who inhabited miserable huts, and there or on the street they prostituted themselves and their daughters. The third category were foreign girls who had been lured or sold to Brazil under false promises. Although they were free persons in the law, they were treated as slaves, trapped in the brothels, forced into debt bondage , beaten and tortured, when they couldn't earn enough money to pay the debts, the high interest rates , rental fees for their room and the other costs of their life.
The fourth category was made up of French and other courtesans who lived in their own large houses and possessed carriages and exquisite jewelry and frequented theaters and other sociologal events. The fact that the enslaved girls and women were exploited in prostitution without misery nor protection by the law was also used as an argument for the abolitionism , the social movement to abolish slavery in the 19th century. The Lei do Ventre Livre "Law of the free belly" , according to which children of slaves were no longer slaves themselves, also decided that slaves were allowed to save money, which their master could not arbitrarily take away from them, and with which they could free themselves.
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As a result, it became more interesting for slave girls to become prostitute, because this way they had a chance to earn a tip for themselves. The inhibition to prostitute themselves was usually low for the female slaves, because they had learned since childhood that they had no sexual self-determination and were accustomed to be raped. However, the custody and administration of the savings of a slave was the responsibility of the owner, and he could try to manipulate the savings and list cost and penalties like tricky pimps do.
There have been even processes of female slaves against their masters, where the women often had to prove with the help of clients that they had been "industrious" and diligent and had numerous customers, much more as listed in the wrong accounting of the master. Although there had been several attempts to prohibit prostitution, there were no laws against it.
Prostitutes were sometimes charged with being vagabonds and with provoking disorder. In addition, there were more and more imported girls from Europe, especially from the poorer regions in the East , Jewish girls, Albanians , women and girls from the Habsburg Monarchy , and for the higher demands French and Italians. The Jewish prostitutes are a special chapter in the history of prostitution in Brazil. About 1, women followed them in the next years. Most were victims of the Jewish pimp mafia Zwi Migdal.
Their members traveled to the impoverished towns of Eastern Europe and established themselves as rich businessmen from Latin America looking for brides.
Prostitution in Brazil - Wikipedia
In truth, they were trafficking. The women who believed their promises became sex slaves. In , Brazil counted more than Jewish brothels. He described in his diary the misery of these women, but he also noted that these Eastern European Jewesses promised exciting and unusual perversion. The prostitutes founded a second Jewish community in Rio, with their own cemetery and their own synagogue, because the prostitutes were rejected by the other Jews.
There the women celebrated the Jewish festivals , although there was no liturgy for women at the time. The pimps were important sponsors of the Jewish theater. At the premieres , Polacas, luxuriously dressed, sat in the front rows and were presented to the potential clientele. The Second World War ended this trafficking of women.
The Jewish prostitutes influenced the cultural life and the artist scene of Rio. They inspired musicians to many compositions.
On average the women became only forty years old. There are three cemeteries of Jewish prostitutes in Brazil. In , the last of the prostitutes lured into the country was buried at Rio's Jewish prostitute cemetery.
In , Rio de Janeiro's Jewish community first conceived a Sabbath ceremony for Jewish prostitutes, which was designed only by women. The celebration was held not in a synagogue, but in the cultural center of the district Lapa , but there are still prejudices against these women. In the s, sex worker Bruna Surfistinha , a confessing prostitute, gained media attention for her blog where she told of her experiences with clients. The most important fighter for the rights of the prostitutes was the prostitute Gabriela Leite , — , who was the leading the campaign for to recognize the sex workers as a profession , so that they got access to the system of pension.
She is the founder of Davida , an organization for the rights of sex workers.
There are several organizations like the "Rede brasileira de prostitutas" Network of Brazilian prostitutes , . By its initiative prostitutes working in the streets can be paid cashless , too. The Aprosmig has also a little sex-museum.